Memory allocated on the heap can be subject to high-water marks. The pools themselves are in KiB arenas, so if just one block in one pool is used, the entire KiB arena will not be released. In Python 3. Additionally, the built-in types maintain freelists of previously allocated objects that may or may not use the small object allocator.
This can be called indirectly by doing a full gc. Try it like this, and tell me what you get. Here's the link for psutil. I switched to measuring relative to the process VM size to eliminate the effects of other processes in the system. The C runtime e. Given this, it isn't surprising if the heap shrinks by more -- even a lot more -- than the block that you free. Even if it did, the int type in 3. If you need MB of temporary storage for 5 minutes, but after that you need to run for another 2 hours and won't touch that much memory ever again, spawn a child process to do the memory-intensive work.
When the child process goes away, the memory gets released. This isn't completely trivial and free, but it's pretty easy and cheap, which is usually good enough for the trade to be worthwhile. First, the easiest way to create a child process is with concurrent.Sign in to post your reply or Sign up for a free account.
I am new in Python. I wrote a program that reads-in large text files using xreadlines, stores some values in lists and arrays and does some calculations. It runs fine for individual files, but when I try to consecutively process files from a folder, I get a memory error. Aug 6 ' Post Reply. Share this Question. Expert Mod 2. Aug 7 ' Very annoying that there is always a mistake after first file. And I have like files. I cannot do them one by one Maybe I must do something in the for loop to free the used memory after reading the first file?
Make sure any open file objects are explicitly closed. Is it possible that there are circular references in your stored data? Python has a robust garbage collection implementation, but garbage collection is not guaranteed to happen, especially to garbage containing circular references.
Thank you but still no light All files are closed yes. And I don't think there are any cyclic refs. Is there a way to check what is still actually stored in memory when the first loop finishes? One of the benefits of Python is that you should not have to worry about memory. Check out the gc module.
This must be quite straightforward. I guess I am not seeing sth. I had already tried gc. Now I tried print gc. That's all I can think of. Unless you post your code and some sample data, I am at a loss. The first are functions which you probably dont need to look at all. The for loop in question starts at line Until line I just read the first line of each file to see which columns I will need to use and then i store the columns in lists. The final part lines to the end I do some calculations on subsets of the columns and right the results to a file.This module provides a class, SharedMemoryfor the allocation and management of shared memory to be accessed by one or more processes on a multicore or symmetric multiprocessor SMP machine.
To assist with the life-cycle management of shared memory especially across distinct processes, a BaseManager subclass, SharedMemoryManageris also provided in the multiprocessing. This style of shared memory permits distinct processes to potentially read and write to a common or shared region of volatile memory. Processes are conventionally limited to only have access to their own process memory space but shared memory permits the sharing of data between processes, avoiding the need to instead send messages between processes containing that data.
Releasing memory in Python
Creates a new shared memory block or attaches to an existing shared memory block. Each shared memory block is assigned a unique name.
In this way, one process can create a shared memory block with a particular name and a different process can attach to that same shared memory block using that same name. As a resource for sharing data across processes, shared memory blocks may outlive the original process that created them.
When one process no longer needs access to a shared memory block that might still be needed by other processes, the close method should be called. When a shared memory block is no longer needed by any process, the unlink method should be called to ensure proper cleanup. When creating a new shared memory block, if None the default is supplied for the name, a novel name will be generated.
When attaching to an existing shared memory block, the size parameter is ignored. Closes access to the shared memory from this instance. In order to ensure proper cleanup of resources, all instances should call close once the instance is no longer needed.
Note that calling close does not cause the shared memory block itself to be destroyed. Requests that the underlying shared memory block be destroyed.
In order to ensure proper cleanup of resources, unlink should be called once and only once across all processes which have need for the shared memory block.
After requesting its destruction, a shared memory block may or may not be immediately destroyed and this behavior may differ across platforms. Attempts to access data inside the shared memory block after unlink has been called may result in memory access errors.
Note: the last process relinquishing its hold on a shared memory block may call unlink and close in either order.
The following example demonstrates low-level use of SharedMemory instances:. The following example demonstrates a practical use of the SharedMemory class with NumPy arraysaccessing the same numpy. A subclass of BaseManager which can be used for the management of shared memory blocks across processes. A call to start on a SharedMemoryManager instance causes a new process to be started. To trigger the release of all shared memory blocks managed by that process, call shutdown on the instance.
This triggers a SharedMemory. By creating SharedMemory instances through a SharedMemoryManagerwe avoid the need to manually track and trigger the freeing of shared memory resources. This class provides methods for creating and returning SharedMemory instances and for creating a list-like object ShareableList backed by shared memory. Refer to multiprocessing. BaseManager for a description of the inherited address and authkey optional input arguments and how they may be used to connect to an existing SharedMemoryManager service from other processes.
Create and return a new SharedMemory object with the specified size in bytes. Create and return a new ShareableList object, initialized by the values from the input sequence. The following example demonstrates the basic mechanisms of a SharedMemoryManager :. The following example depicts a potentially more convenient pattern for using SharedMemoryManager objects via the with statement to ensure that all shared memory blocks are released after they are no longer needed:.
Provides a mutable list-like object where all values stored within are stored in a shared memory block. This constrains storable values to only the intfloatboolstr less than 10M bytes eachbytes less than 10M bytes eachand None built-in data types.
There are many other interesting changes, please consult the "What's New" page in the documentation for a full list. Michelangelo : Good evening, your Holiness. Pope : Evening, Michelangelo. I want to have a word with you about this painting of yours, "The Last Supper. Pope : I'm not happy about it.
Michelangelo : Oh, dear. It took me hours. Pope : Not happy at all. Michelangelo : Is it the jellies you don't like? Pope : No. Michelangelo : Of course not, they add a bit of color, don't they? Oh, I know, you don't like the kangaroo? Pope : What kangaroo? Michelangelo : No problem, I'll paint him out. Pope : I never saw a kangaroo! Michelangelo : Uuh I'll paint him out! No sweat, I'll make him into a disciple.
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Fixing a Tough Memory Leak In Python
Sign in to your account. After each model trained, I run sess. But it seems that the GPU memory was not relseased and it's increasing constantly. I tried tf. ConfigProto config. Maybe this will help? I think issue had a similar problem, here is the link: Why the gpu memory usage is still lingering after sess. How could I use tf. Is there any other advice for releasing resources? Nagging Assignee cy89 : It has been 14 days with no activity and this issue has an assignee.
So when the subprocess exits, the GPU memory is released? Since the docs say that "Note that we do not release memory, since that can lead to even worse memory fragmentation". I also called tf. JaeDukSeo do you happen to have an answer for saxenarohan97? JaeDukSeo thanks for your reply! I'll close, as it looks like this thread has answers to all open questions. I use numba to release the gpu. With tensorflow I can not find a effect method.
TanLingxiao were you able to find any other method? Was hoping that tensorflow has config option to free GPU Memory after the processing ends. These few lines already clutter the memory. As mentioned above I would like to avoid killing the session and thus losing my varibales in memory used to train a NN.
I am aware that I can alocate only a fraction of the memory cfg. I have also upgraded my graphics card driver to the newest release see below and note the memory which is not released after the call from above. I'd be very thankful for any suggestions what to do with the code snippet from above to ensure that the GPU memory is free in the end. Have the same issue hear; I can only fit a model once using Keras with TensorFlow backend, and the second time with the very same modelit just crashes OOM error.
Also appreciate suggestions here. I have solved this issue with some kind of duct tape. I've used the bash script, which launched my module multiple times, after every execution the GPU memory has been released. It is also possible to use subprocess. I have solved it by running the session in a separate Thread. When the session is completed, the memory used by such process is released, when the process is killed.
Remember to save your session results on disk in the same method. I tried a thread too but the only thing that worked for me is to use a subprocess.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
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The behavior I have observed is that only after the program exit, the memory is released. It makes using multiprocessing hard. Suppose one process is waited on a lock for another progress to finish, and all two processes need to join the main process.
Then when process one release the lock, process two cannot get GPU memory, so it would fail. Is there any way to release memory, so when the above program not the two process example is sleeping, it will release memory? For bugs or installation issues, please provide the following information.
The more information you provide, the more easily we will be able to offer help and advice. Line 35 in 30b Alternatively, you could delete your session objects which should release the memory associated with them when you don't need them. Note that this time I used a tensorflow compiled from source, since the 0. What about the first problem? Normally deleting an object in python does not guarantee releasing memories, also the case here relates to GPU.
It is up to tensorflow to decide what to do. Is that right?
Or am I missing something? Version 0. I fall back to 0. Do not have time to check where goes wrong yet. TensorFlow preallocates all the memory in self-managed pools. You could try tensorboard, not sure if it shows the memory status. And if you are using keras on top of tensorflow then you can use in following way. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
Sign up. New issue.This post discusses how to do this in Python. We are going to create a Python script that stores a secret key in a variable, and then we read the memory of this process to see whether the secret is present in memory. The contents of the file correspond with the address space of the memory, and not all addresses have memory mapped to them.
You can then seek to that position and read a blob of memory. Reading memory of other processes is not allowed unless you attach a process using ptrace. This is what debuggers use. Instead of doing this, it may be easier to use a real debugger like gdb to dump the memory to a file.
Another way is to create a core file. This can be done with the command gcore after installing gdbor by aborting the process and letting the operating system create a core file. There are several settings that influence whether a core file is created when a program exits abnormally:. After configuring that we want core files, we can call os.
We want to test having a secret variable in memory. Here is our test code:. After running this, a core file is generated and we use grep to check whether the secret was present in memory:. Now that we can check the process memory for our secret string, we can try several ways to try to clear that secret from memory. When we run grep again, we see that the secret is still present in memory. Obviously the secret variable no longer points to the secret value, but the value itself was not deleted.
Our secret is still present in memory. The garbage collector has freed the memory and will use it again in the future, but it has not cleared the contents. We can run some memory-intensive code to try and overwrite the just-freed memory, but there is no guarantee that the secret will be overwritten.
If we want to overwrite it, we have do so explicitly. Java suggests using a bytebecause it is mutable and can be cleared after use.
In Python 3 we have something similar, the bytearray. It is possible to read a secret into a bytearray and clear it afterwards, like this:. The problem is that when using secret, it should never be converted to a string. Presumably you want to use the secret for something. The requests library sends numbers instead of text when given a bytearray. If we want to sent text we have to convert the bytearray to a string, which again puts it in memory without the possibility to remove it.
We can use ctypes to call memset, a function to write memory. One StackOverflow answer has an example:. This makes a lot of assumptions about the implementation of strings, which may change with different Python versions and different environments.
In fact, when I run the code, it gave a segfault:. Even worse, the core dump contains the secret string. The code that was supposed to keep the secret secret exposed it while crashing.Transforming Code into Beautiful, Idiomatic Python